A student who passes a course receives both the designated number of credit hours and a number of quality points, calculated by multiplying the course credit hours and the numerical equivalent of the letter grade received (A = 4, B = 3, C = 2, D = 1). Thus, a student taking a 3 hour credit course and earning a C receives six quality points. To determine the undergraduate scholastic average, the total number of quality points earned by the student for all courses scheduled as an undergraduate is divided by the total number of credit hours scheduled; for the graduate scholastic average, only those courses scheduled by the student while enrolled in the graduate division are considered. If a student takes the same course more than once, the later grade does not replace the earlier one; rather, the scholastic average includes both grades unless grade substitution has been approved. Courses taken pass/fail are not included in the calculation of the student's grade-point average. grade-point averages are truncated after two decimal places.